Environmental Studies

Springbank Clover

Springbank Clover 

Common Name: 

Springbank Clover

Scientific Name: 

Trifolium wormskjoldiiLehm

Indigenous Name(s): 

Perennial clover, Wild clover, Marsh clover, Cows clover, Coast clover Springbank clover root – First Nation’s Names (Nancy Turner, personal communication):

Tlingit: tséit (“wild tubers”) (Thornton)

Haida (Massett, Alaska): ? xil laabs (M)

Licorice Fern

polypodium glycyrrhiza

Other names.

Polypodium glycyrrhiza

St'uselóye (Halq'emeylem)


Licorice fern is a small, evergreen fern that grows on mossy rocks, ground and logs as well as on big-leaf maple tree trunks as single leaves from long, scaly rhizomes. Licorice fern is Lanceolate, 10-60 cm long, 2-15 cm wide, pinnatifid with sharp deep incisions and elongated pointed segments with toothed margins; rachis with rusty hairs on upper surface in the top one third.

Distribution and Habitat.


Common Name(s): Kinnikinnick, Common Bearberry, Crowberry, Mountain Cranberry, Foxberry, Mealberry

Scientific Name: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

First Nations Name: Kinnikinnik (Alqonquian)

Family: Ericaceae 


Red Elderberry

Common Names:

Coastal Red Elder, Red Elderberry

First Nations Names:

Upriver Halkomelem: sth’iwuq’ (fruit), sth’iwuq’ulhp (shrub)

Downriver Halkomelem: th’iwuq’ (fruit), th’iwuq’ulhp (shrub)

Island Halkomelem: th’iwuq’ (fruit)


Family: Sambucus

Grand Fir

Common name

Grand Fir


Latin name

Abies grandis


Hulkemel’em name






–      S a l a l   –

Salal plant

Common Name(s):


Scientific Name(s):

Gaultheria shallon

Sword Fern

Sword Fern

(Polystichum munitum)

picture of sword fern in the forest

Figure 1. Fully mature sword fern in the forest (Hansen, 2012)

Common Names

Sword Fern, Shield Fern, Christmas Fern, Sword Holly Fern

(Garden Works, n.d.; Hansen, 2012)

Bracken Fern

Bracken Fern

Pteridium aquilinum


Picture of bracken fern

Source: Vancouver Island Grows


Common Names

bracken, brake, common bracken, eagle fern

First Nation Names


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